21st century Texas faces major challenges in providing energy, health care, a quality environment, security and transportation for a growing population. Advances in materials science and engineering are needed to meet these challenges. There are also exciting opportunities emerging in materials design and materials processing for enabling new approaches to critical problems. The 2016 TAMEST conference will highlight recent developments in materials science and engineering that are and will be leading to qualitative changes in the way products are manufactured, in the way medicine is practiced and the way energy is provided to our society. A program of internationally recognized experts will present their latest research at the 2016 TAMEST Annual Conference - Materials for the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities. We will hear about developments in material design at the nano and micro scales, using both computation and experiment, for both structural and electronic applications, about materials issues for both conventional and new energy sources, about the role of materials in space science, and about how materials developments are changing the delivery of medical care. This program will provide a window into materials science and engineering developments that will affect how we will live and how we will do business in 21st century Texas.